อาหารและโภชนาการ

posted on 08 Sep 2011 15:14 by pokmv24
โภชนาการ  (nutrition) หมายถึง อาหาร (food) ที่เข้าสู่ร่างกายคนแล้ว  ร่างกายสามารถนำไปใช้เป็นประโยชน์ในด้านการเจริญเติบโต การค้ำจุนและการซ่อมแซมส่วนต่างๆของร่างกาย โภชนาการมีความหมายกว้างกว่าและต่างจากคำว่าอาหาร  เพราะอาหารที่กินกันอยู่ทุกวันนี้มีดีเลวต่างกัน อาหารหลายชนิดที่กินแล้วรู้สึกอิ่ม แต่ไม่มีประโยชน์ หรือก่อโทษต่อร่างกายได้
          ถ้านำเอาอาหารต่างๆมาวิเคราะห์ จะพบว่ามีสารประกอบอยู่มากมายหลายชนิด โดยอาศัยหลักคุณค่าทางโภชนาการทำให้มีการจัดสารประกอบต่างๆ ในอาหารออกเป็น ๖ ประเภท คือ โปรตีน (protein) คาร์โบไฮเดรต (carbohydrate) ไขมัน (fat) วิตามิน (vitamin) เกลือแร่ (mineral) และน้ำ สารประกอบทั้ง ๖ กลุ่มนี่เองที่เรียกว่า "สารอาหาร" (nutrient)  ร่างกายประกอบด้วยสารอาหารเหล่านี้ และการทำงานของร่างกายจะเป็นปกติอยู่ได้ก็ต่อเมื่อได้สารอาหารทั้ง ๖ ประเภทครบถ้วน

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